The human body has 25,000 genes approximately which are inherited birth that give the person physical and emotional attributes. Some genes can be defective predisposing one to diseases that may attack them later in life. Other genes may remain dormant and get passed down to their future generations who will suffer from the disease (More 3). This threat can be removed through genetic engineering through preventing or completely eradicating the threat completely. This is done by identifying and repairing them or introducing genes that can negate or combat the defective genes detrimental effects. Gene therapy can be used to find remedies to non-genetic diseases and it has enabled the treatment of autoimmune and cardiac diseases over the last decade. Genetic engineering has been applied to human reproduction whereby genetic diseases can be identified at the fetal stage so as to enable the doctors take remedial action. Hopefully, as time goes by, such diseases can be treated successfully before the fetus is born (Boylan and Kevin 72).
Genetic engineering has been used in the pharmaceutical field to help in the production of medicines that are more sophisticated and superior to help in the treatment and prevention of diseases. In animal-human transgenic combinations are used in the medical field whereby pig organs can be used for human transplants. The pigs physiology and organ size are similar to human beings making them viable for use as transgenic animals. It is hoped that pig organs can be used in xenotransplantation, whereby their organs are transplanted into human recipients and thereby reducing the shortage of human organs like kidneys and hearts. Other transgenetic animals are used in medicine for the growing of tissues to serve as temporary skin substitutes for burns and other wounds.
They can also be used to obtain replacement cerebrospinal shunts, cartilage, heart valves or collagen tubes for guiding the re-growth of nerves that are injured (Glenn). There is hope that therapeutic proteins can be derived from monoclonal antibodies from milk obtained from transgenic cows, goats, rabbits and mice and later used to administer drugs in treatment of autoimmune disorders like cancer or rheumatoid arthritis. Monoclonal antibodies are proteins that have the ability to recognize specific substances that are in concentrations that are extremely low. They are used to in detecting and targeting cancer cells in what is referred to as a magic bullet approach and also in testing for pregnancy (Ramachandran and Karthik 33). In conclusion, putting the ethical issues that arise when it comes to genetic engineering, its benefits are key in attaining the utopian goal of making the world disease free and also reduce the number of deaths due to lack of food. Its advantages outweigh the disadvantages when done in a selfless and moral manner specifically when it comes to treating of diseases and making of food. Works cited Boylan, Michael, and Kevin, Brown E. Genetic engineering: science and ethics on the new frontier. Michigan: UOM Press, 2009. Fridell, Ron. Genetic Engineering. New York: Publisher Lerner, 2006. Glenn, L.M.”Ethical Issues in Genetic Engineering and Transgenics” ActionBioscience.org. 8 June 2004. 23 Apr. 2010.