They presented factors such as ethnicity, diversity, religion, language, and population ages and clearly articulated how these were weighted in their statistical study. Their conclusion that none of these was as significant as per capita income as a proxy for effective governance was convincing in light of other opportunities for insurgency, such as rough terrain.
However, in regards to a truly ethnic war, what acts as motivation for rebellion cannot always be categorized as economic. The authors do not specifically address how their insurgency factors add up against the particular kind of organized violence that occurs in ethnic cleansing conflicts, such as massacres of men and boys while forcibly impregnating women through rape campaigns. In facing a threat to ones ethnic identity, the influence that opportunity costs exerts over an insurgent should decrease.
Consideration should also be given to whether both a weakening state capacity and a lower opportunity cost of rebellion may erode that countrys “culture for peace.
In countries where violence has become the norm, a cultural of violence may set in, which contributes in its own manner to increased, prolonged, brutal civil conflicts.
3. Will the future population constraints faced by developed and developing countries have a significant effect on the incidence of civil conflict? Why or why not?
Newspapers provide constant updates on population trends and statistics and how they threaten the status quo. In the United States, for instance, Hispanic birthrates are significantly outpacing white births; in Europe and Japan, birthrates are.