Soft and hard targets and defined and discussed as well as the need for population defense and the idea that with a coordinated, comprehensive response plan and team implementation, the disaster related damage can be minimized. This chapter is devoted to covering the terrorism aspect of disaster, and helps to tie together the previous two chapters.
Chapter 12 deals with mass casualties and evacuation. This chapter also ties in closely to the previous chapters regarding terrorism weapons of mass destruction. Large-scale evacuations have their own set of challenges, as do dealing with huge numbers of casualties. And because this is not a very common scenario, many fire departments and local authorities are not well prepared for these types of emergencies. Kramer discusses the dire necessity of proper planning and execution of disaster relief efforts during these specific times of crisis. The National Disaster Medical System is discussed as well as some of the most effective approaches for the NDMS to take relative to dealing with massive amounts of casualties. Large-scale evacuations also pose many different challenges to aid workers and organizations like the Department of Homeland Security and the NDMS. Kramer outlines these challenges and discusses ways to overcome these sometimes easily-overlooked problems.
Chapters 13 and 14 deal with natural disasters. Chapter 13 delves into disaster scenarios related to weather and weather emergencies. These types of emergencies are quite different from those discussed in previous chapters because they represent disasters that are out of the control of man. There are many different types of weather related disasters but here again; Kramer stresses the need for local authorities to be prepared to deal with these emergencies and to have adequate planning and training as well. Kramer discusses each major type of weather disaster at length including tornadoes, hurricanes, storms, lightning, and floods.
He also talks about the unique set of challenges faced by disaster relief teams when dealing with each specific weather-related disaster. Chapter 14 deals with ground-based disasters, or terrain disasters. These types of disasters are also out of mans control, and far less predictable than weather-related disasters. Earthquakes, volcanoes, and landslides are presented as terrain-based disasters with their own specific challenges and response solutions. The causes and predictability of these types of natural disasters make up much of the discussion within this chapter.
Chapter 15 of Kramers Disaster Planning and Control deals with the aftermath of disasters and the recovery efforts. Instead of painting a gloomy picture of aftermath and relief efforts, Kramer begins the chapter by discussing the importance of communication networks and how both local and national government entities can successfully deal with recovery efforts once the initial disaster and relief efforts are completed. Kramer also stresses the importance of evaluating the relief efforts to see where improvements can be made as well as giving due credit to successful responses. This chapter is an excellent ending to a book filled with so much information relative to different types of disasters and how.